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Daily Current Affairs, 13th November 2017

GS Paper II- Governance

BRO Builds World’s Highest Motorable Road In Ladakh.

Background

  • In a major feat, the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has constructed the world’s highest motorable road in Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, passing through Umlingla Top at a height of over 19,300 feet.
  • The feat was achieved under ‘Project Himank’ of the organisation.
  • Being close to Hanle, the 86km long strategic road connects Chisumle and Demchok villages, located 230 km from Leh. These villages are stone’s throw away from the India-China border in eastern sector, a spokesman of BRO said.

 

Highlights Of The Development-

  • Felicitating the BRO personnel for completing the herculean task, chief engineer, Project Himank, Brigadier DM Purvimath, said constructing the road at the altitude of over 19,300 feet was filled with life-threatening challenges.
  • He said the climate at the location is always adverse for construction activities.
  • During peak summers, temperature hovers around minus 10-20 degrees Celsius, and in winters, it dips to minus 40 degrees. Oxygen level at the altitude is 50 per cent less than at normal places, Purvimath said.
  • The brigadier said logistics was another major challenge at such an altitude.
  • Purvimath said because of this gradation, the personnel faced serious health problems like loss of memory, eyesight and high blood pressure.
  • Pardeep Raj, Commander 753 BRTF, who looks after road construction of this sector, said the BRO personnel were acclimatised through a tedious process and lot of training before being assigned the job.
  • The Project Himank has already constructed roads like Khardangu La at an altitude of 17,900 ft and Changla Pass at 17,695 ft in Leh by connecting Nobra valley and Durbuk valley in the cold desert.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GS -2 : Polity and constitution

Mention case only before CJI, says Supreme Court

Background

  • As the Constitution Bench declared that the Chief Justice of India is the master who alone could decide what case goes to which judge in the Supreme Court, the registry published a circular notifying lawyers and litigants not to orally mention fresh cases before any other Supreme Court judge except before the Bench presided by the Chief Justice of India.

What is this new circular?

  • The circular is issued by the Registry of the Supreme Court.
  • The circular asks lawyers and litigants not to orally mention fresh cases before any other Supreme Court judge except before the Bench presided over by the Chief Justice of India.
  • The circular has in effect, put a stop to the practice of lawyers or litigants mentioning their cases before Justice J. Chelameswar’s court, the number two judge in the supreme court.
  • The circular does not provide for a contingency where the CJI is either on leave or is unable to come to court for any other reason.

Why is this circular significant?

  • The circular is significant as it was an oral mention before Justice Chelameswar’s Bench on November 9 that led to a series of events culminating in an almost spur-of-the-moment hearing by a five-judge Constitution Bench led by the Chief Justice of India on November 10.

What was the issue?

  • On November 9, advocate Kamini Jaiswal had made an urgent oral mention of a petition before a two-judge Bench. The petition wanted the investigation into the medical college corruption case to be transferred from the CBI to a SIT supervised by a retired CJI.
  • The petition said the FIR suspected that a conspiracy was highlighted to bribe Supreme Court judges.
  • The two-judge Bench immediately listed the case for hearing on the same afternoon and ordered a Constitution Bench of the “first five judges in the order of seniority” to be set up on November 13 to hear Ms. Jaiswal’s petition.

What was the CJI’s reaction to it?

  • The Constitution Bench headed by Chief Justice Misra effectively prevented the scheduled hearing on November 13 by laying down the law that no two-judge Bench can command the Chief Justice of India to constitute Benches to hear cases in the Supreme Court.
  • The Chief Justice of India is the sole master and carries the complete administrative prerogative over which judge should hear which case in the apex court. The Constitution Bench, in effect, nullified the two-judge Bench’s order.

Chief Justice of India

  • Chief Justice is the senior most judge in the country, i.e, he is at the apex in the court of law. He sits in the supreme court, the court of Apex.
  • The most powerful authority someone as a chief justice can have is, to become an acting President or vice President when the post is vacant until the next President is selected.
  • CJI is constitutional post. He/she is who gives oath to president/vice President of india.
  • He/she assigns judicial and administrative work to judges and registers.
  • Represent India in International Judicial/ legal forum.

The appointment of CJI

  • The Chief Justice is appointed by the President in consultation with such other judges of the Supreme Court and High Court as he may deem necessary.
  • Convention dictates the appointment of the senior most judges of the Supreme Court as Chief Justice.
  • The other judges are appointed by the President after consultation with the Chief justice and such other judges of the Supreme Court and the high courts as deemed necessary.
  • The Consultation with the Chief justice is considered necessary for the appointment of any judge other than the Chief justice.

How powerful is CJI?

  • MORAL POWER: Chief Justice is the senior most judge in the country, i.e, he is at the apex in the court of law. He sits in the supreme court, the court of Apex.
  • POLITICAL POWER: The most powerful authority someone as a chief justice can have is, to become an acting President or vice President when the post is vacant until the next President is selected.
  • LEGAL POWER: As head of the supreme court, the chief justice is responsible for the allocation of cases and appointment of constitutional benches which deal with important matters of law. Chief Justice allocates all work to the other judges who are bound to refer the matter back to him or her
  • POLITICAL POWER: On the administrative side, the Chief Justice carries out the following functions: maintenance of the roster; appointment of court officials and general and miscellaneous matters relating to the supervision and functioning of the Supreme Court.

The Constitution itself clearly lays out heightened powers for the CJI. Broadly, these are:

  • The CJI swears in the President and Governors;
  • The President must consult with the Chief Justice before appointing Supreme Court or High Court judges;
  • Article 127 gives the CJI power to appoint ad hoc Supreme Court judges
  • Article 128 the power to sit retired Supreme Court judges
  • Article 130 the power to sit the Court outside of Delhi (with the President’s approval)
  • Article 146 the power to appoint officers and servants of the Court
  • Article 222 the power to move high court judges to another high court
  • Articles 257, 258, and 290 which gives the CJI the ability to appoint an arbitrator to resolve certain financial disputes between the centre and the states
  • He or she is also paid a bit more than the rest of the justices, (presumably) for taking on these additional responsibilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

GS 2: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)

 

IRRI

 

Background

A ‘rice field laboratory’ named after Prime Minister Modi was recently inaugurated by Prime Minister himself at IRRI in Los Banos in Philippines.

 

About IRRI:

What is it?

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization known for its work in developing rice varieties that contributed to the Green Revolution in the 1960s.

Aim:

The Institute, established in 1960 aims to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensure environmental sustainability of rice farming.

CGIAR:

IRRI is one of 15 agricultural research centers in the world that form the CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research centres, a global partnership of organizations engaged in research on food security. It is also the largest non-profit agricultural research centres in Asia.

India and the IRRI:

IRRI has successfully collaborated with Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) to introduce drought- tolerant, flood-tolerant and salt-tolerant varieties of rice in India. The Indian government is also setting up a regional centre of the IRRI in Varanasi, the Prime Minister’s constituency, to develop high-yielding rice varieties. The Varanasi Centre would help increase farmers’ income by enhancing and supporting rice productivity, reducing cost of production, value addition, diversification and enhancement of farmers’ skills.

 

 

 

 

GS-2 : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 

Project Saksham

 

indian railways employee

 

What is it?

It is the country’s largest time-bound “upskilling” exercise for government employees launched by the Indian Railways.

What it does?

It aims to upgrade the skillsets of its 13 lakh-strong workforce with a single drive spanning nine months. The nature of the short-duration training will range from refresher courses, with an eye on evolved global practices in the respective areas, to skills in the existing lining of functioning.

Who will be trained?

Employees from the rank of a peon to the Railway Board Members and everyone in between will undergo the training.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GS-2 : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 

Hausala 2017

 

What is it?

It is the Child Rights Week celebrated by the Ministry of Women and Child Development from 16th to 20th November, 2017.

 

child rights

 

Background:

The country celebrates the Children’s Day on 14th November and the International Child Rights Day is celebrated on 20th November every year. The period between the two important events will be celebrated as Child Rights Week by WCD Ministry by hosting an Inter CCI Festival for the children who reside in Child Care Institutions (CCIs).

 

Significance of this event:

  • The commemoration of the festival “Hausala 2017” will provide an occasion to showcase the talents of children from CCIs from various child care institutions across the country and provide them with a space to express their dreams and aspiration.
  • Children will be participating in various events like Bal Sansad, painting competition, athletics meet, football, chess competition and speech writing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GS 2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

 

Measles & Rubella

 

Context:

The India Expert Advisory Group on Measles & Rubella (IEAG-MR) has commended India on the progress of the measles and rubella vaccination campaign. The expert member group concluded that ‘the country is on the right track’. The group has advised for the MR vaccination campaign to cover the whole country by 2018. Presently, 13 states have been covered by the vaccination campaign.

 

rubella

 

About MR campaign:

What is it?

The MR campaign targets around 41 crore children across the country, the largest ever in any campaign. Under the campaign, children will be given a single shot of Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination irrespective of their previous measles/rubella vaccination status or measles/rubella disease status. MR vaccine will be provided free- of- cost across the states from session sites at schools as well as health facilities and outreach session sites.

Target group: All children aged between 9 months and less than 15 years will be covered.

 

About Measles and Rubella:

Measles is a deadly disease and one of the important causes of death in children. It is highly contagious and spreads through coughing and sneezing of an infected person. Measles can make a child vulnerable to life threatening complications such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and brain infection. Globally, in 2015, measles killed an estimated 1, 34,200 children—mostly under-5 years. In India, it killed an estimated 49,200 children.

Rubella is generally a mild infection, but has serious consequences if infection occurs in pregnant women, causing congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which is a cause of public health concern. CRS is characterized by congenital anomalies in the foetus and newborns affecting the eyes (glaucoma, cataract), ears (hearing loss), brain (microcephaly, mental retardation) and heart defects, causing a huge socio-economic burden on the families in particular and society in general.

 

Way ahead:

Measles kills an estimated 49,000 children in India each year, which is about 37% of the global deaths due to this disease. India has set an ambitious goal to eliminate measles from the country. Measles Rubella vaccine has been introduced in 13 states. It is planned to expand across the country, covering 41 crore children by the end of 2018.

 

GS 2: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

 

South China sea dispute

 

south china sea

 

Context:

Southeast Asian leaders are planning to start negotiations with China on a so- called “Code of Conduct” in the disputed South China Sea in what they regard as a milestone. However, China has been opposed to a legally binding code.

 

About the dispute over south China sea:

Where is the South China Sea? The South China Sea is located at the western edge of the Pacific Ocean, to Asia’s southeast. It encompasses an area of about 1.4 million square miles and contains a collection of reefs, islands and atolls, including the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands and Scarborough Shoal.

 

China’s claims:

Beijing claims 90% of the South China Sea, a maritime region believed to hold a wealth of untapped oil and gas reserves and through which roughly $4.5tn of ship-borne trade passes every year. Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan also contest China’s claims to islands and reef systems closer to their territory than Beijing’s.

China says it follows a historical precedent set by the “nine-dash line” that Beijing drew in 1947 following the surrender of Japan. The line has been included in subsequent maps issued under Communist rule.

 

Importance of South China Sea:

  • It is a 3.5m sq km waterway.
  • One of the world’s most strategically vital maritime spaces.
  • More oil passes through here than the Suez Canal.
  • More than $5 trillion in trade flows through its waters each year. That is a third of all global maritime commerce.
  • The Strait of Malacca that links Indian and Pacific Oceans handles four times as much oil as Suez Canal.

 

 

 

GS Paper III- Security.

IAF, DRDO Successfully Test Indigenous ‘Glide’ Bomb, To Be Inducted Soon.

Background

  • The government said on 3rd November, 2017 that an indigenously developed light weight ‘Glide’ bomb has been successfully tested in Chandipur in Odisha, marking a major milestone in developing such weapons.
  • The bomb — SAAW (Smart Anti Airfield Weapon) — was dropped from an Indian Air Force aircraft at the Integrated Test Range (ITR) in Chandipur on 2nd November, 2017.
  • The guided bomb released from the aircraft and guided through precision navigation system, reached the targets at greater than 70 km range, with high accuracies.

 

Highlights Of The Development-

  • The defence ministry said in a statement that a total of three tests with “different release conditions” and ranges were conducted and were all successful.
  • The guided bomb is developed by the Research Centre Imarat (RCI), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), along with other laboratories of the DRDO and the Indian Air Force.
  • Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman congratulated the DRDO scientists and IAF for the successful tests.
  • Secretary, Department of Defence R&D and chairman DRDO, S Christopher, congratulated the team and said SAAW will be inducted soon into the armed forces.
  • Director General Missiles and Strategic System of DRDO G Satheesh Reddy termed the test a major milestone in the indigenous capabilities to develop guided bombs.

 

 

 

GS 3: Topic: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

 

Not to pursue Islamic banking: RBI

 

The Reserve Bank of India has decided not to pursue a proposal for introduction of Islamic banking in the country. The central bank said the decision was taken after considering “the wider and equal opportunities” available to all citizens to access banking and financial services.

 

About Islamic banking:

 

islamic banking

 

What is it? Islamic or Sharia banking is a finance system based on the principles of not charging interest, which is prohibited under Islam.

 

What exactly is Sharia/Islamic banking?

Sharia banking refers to banking activity that conforms to Islamic law or Sharia. The fundamental principle of Islamic finance is the rejection of usury, along with the requirement that there must be no engagement in immoral businesses. Usury is seen as the levying of unreasonably high interest rates while lending money. Interest is Riba, which in its current interpretation, covers all interest — not just excessive interest. Under Islamic law, a Muslim is prohibited from both paying and accepting interest. Thus, Sharia banking means money can only be parked in a bank without interest — and this money cannot be used for speculative trading, gambling, or trading in prohibited commodities such as alcohol or pork.

 

Need for Islamic Banking:

Certain faiths prohibit the use of financial instruments that pay interest. The non- availability of interest-free banking products results in some Indians, including those in the economically disadvantaged strata of society, not being able to access banking products and services due to reasons of faith. This non-availability also denies the country access to substantial sources of savings from other countries in the region.

Therefore, introduction of Sharia or Islamic banking could bring more Muslims into the banking system, and help in the inflow of institutional wealth from entities operating in the Islamic world to the Indian economy. Sharia banking is not restricted to Muslims alone, and other communities who are interested in other forms of banking like ethical banking could be allowed to participate.

 

How does India benefit from Islamic banking?

Introduction of Islamic Banking was mooted by Raghuram Rajan in his report on the Financial Sector in the year 2008 where he recommended that interest-free banking techniques should be operated on a larger scale so as to give access to those who are unable to access banking services, including those belong to economically disadvantaged section of the society.

  • There are many advantages in introducing an Islamic window in the banks. For instance, majority of companies in the Stock Exchange are shariat compliant (this number is more than the shariat complaint companies on the Stock Exchange in Malaysia), thus this would result in attracting huge funds in the domestic market alone.
  • An Islamic Banking window will encourage many from the Muslim community to come forward and invest in projects thereby mobilising huge amount of capital which they may not be willing to put in the banks. This also means that India will be able to attract huge investments from West Asia and from those who invest only in shariat compliant projects.

 

Sharia banking globally:

A 2015 World Bank report estimated Sharia-compliant financial assets to be in the range of US $ 2 trillion, covering bank and non-bank financial institutions, capital markets, money markets and insurance. The Islamic Finance Industry has been expanding at a rate of 10%-12% annually. According to the World Bank, in many Muslim countries, Islamic banking assets have been growing faster than conventional banking assets. There has also been a surge of interest in Islamic finance in non-Muslim countries such as the UK, Luxembourg, South Africa, and Hong Kong.

 

GS 3 : Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

 

Cobots

 

Small, collaborative robots, or cobots, are gaining currency across the world, as also in India. Several firms, be it Bajaj Auto or Aurolab, have benefited from the adoption of cobots and are planning to add more to their shop floors.

 

cobots

 

About Cobots:

What is a cobot?

A cobot is intended to work hand-in-hand with humans in a shared workspace. This is in contrast with full-fledged robots that are designed to operate autonomously or with limited guidance. They support and relieve the human operator of his excess work.

How they operate? examples

In an auto factory, while the the cobot tightens the bolts, the human worker places the tools in front of the cobot. In a biscuit factory, the cobot would package the biscuits while the worker segregates burnt ones not fit for consumption. In a small-scale industry, the cobot is placed on the drilling job while the worker performs a quality check.

Benefits of Cobots:

Cobots are easy to use, flexible and safe. Unlike industrial robots, cobots don’t need fencing for the protection of workers in the shop floor.

 

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(7) Nirvana

Nirvana is the summum bonnum of Buddhism. It is a state of enlightenment, commonly described as cessation of suffering. Literal meaning is “blowing out”. It is attainable here in this very life, and in this body. It implies the extinction of all cravings and impressions that lead to rebirth. Thus it is a cessation of the vicious cycle of Samsara, and end of the five skandhas of soul.
In Buddhist Philosophy, Nirvana is the state of extinction of suffering and not of existence. It is given in third noble truth. Nirvana is not inactivity.
  • Positively, Nirvana is identified with bliss.
  • Negatively, it is the wearing out and dissociation with all affliction such as greed, delusion etc.
The Hinayana ascribes only to the negative definition of Nirvana, while the Mahayana school identifies both Samsana and Nirvana as two relative states of being, with the Samsana as the state of becoming and Nirvana as the end of becoming.
In the Buddha Philosophy, two states of liberation are described : i.e
  • Saupadhisesa : Where mental dispositions end (Nirvana)
  • Anupadhisesa : Where the body is also discarded, and all the being is extinct (Parinirvana)
Thus, Nirvana is described as Annihilation(Blowing out of the flame) of Existence. In order to gain Prajna or the state intutive transcendental realization that leads to Nirvana, Buddha laid down the 8 fold path in his fourth noble truth. (One who follows 8 fold path and altars.)
The eight fold path is :
a) Samyak Dristhi : Correct perception about four Noble truths
b) Samyak Sankalp : Correct resolve to end suffering and seek the truth.
c) Samyak Vak : Refinement of speech
d) Samyak Karmanta : Resisting from five sins of killing, lying, stealing, intoxication etc on the Pancha Shila.
e) Samyak Ajiva : Livelihood by honest means
f) Samyak Vyayam : Effort to prevent negative thoughts and retain positive thoughts.
g) Samyak Smriti : Right mindfulness.
h) Samyak Samadhi : Concentration and Meditation whose final stage is complete detachment, equanimity and indifference.
Similar to Jainism :   Faith : SAMADHI
                                       Knowledge : Prajna
                                       Conduct : Shila
Buddha avoids systematic metaphysics. Earlier Buddhism avoided speculative thought. Rather it was based on empirical evidences aided by the Sansar. However, Buddhist scholars have addressed many metaphysical issue (they only avoided speculation). Buddha discouraged its individuals from indulging in speculation because it is fruitless and it distracts from true awakening. He is silent because :
a) He emphasizes on self awakening. Only by self effort can wisdom be awakened that can cleanse the self of psychological defilement.
b) He says that both affirmative and negative positions regarding these questions are based on the attachment or misunderstanding of the aggregate theory (Panchskandha)
c) Reality is beyond sensory experience, i.e it cannot be described in language.
However Buddha’s silence doesn’t indicate misology of philosophy. He rather addresses many metaphysical issues with his teachings of PsP, Nairatmyavad, rebirth, cause of suffering, cessation of suffering etc.
Criticism :
  • If everything is continuously changing, shouldn’t the Universe have a first cause? He doesn’t give the cause of “ignorance” in the psp-chakra.
  • If soul is simply an aggregate : Who is in bondage? What gets liberated? Why is it in bondage? Is it part of its natural flow?
  • Memory : Means existence of a permanent synthesizing subject without which knowledge should be impossible.
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(6) Bodhi/Prajna

There is a common misunderstanding concerning the Doctrine of anatta, saying that through this doctrine Buddha denies the existence of soul. But it is not so, as Buddha denies just the existence of an eternal, unchanging soul, but accepts self/soul as a collection of skandhas, which is not permanent but keeps on changing. He accepts a changing self as an individual ego complex.
Buddhism does not deny the existence of pure self, which is pure consciousness, and only reality. It is termed as BODHI or PRAJNA. He never denied pure conciousness, true aatma or pure self i.e Boddhi or Prajnana.
Upanishads have repeatedly used the term Aatma to symbolize the ultimate reality/transcendental self. Buddha admitted this as Prajna, instead of Aatma and instead relegated the term Aatma to be used in place of Jiva.
Thus, what Buddha calls Aatma is what Jains/Vedantins refer to as Jiva/Buddhi. This is what Buddha emphasizes to be eternally false, which is also accepted by Vedantins/Jains. However, because of this misunderstanding, they condemn each other.
The consciousness/self that is in flux is termed as Chitta by Vedantins, which is a continuous stream with no identity of its own. (Of which Buddha developed KSHANIKAVAD)
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(5) Anantmavad (or) Nairatmavada/No-Soul-theory

This is the logical consequence of Doctrine of Dependent Organization.
According to PsP, everything in both the physical and mental world is conditional, dependent on something else for their existence. Its logical consequence is nothing is permanent and eternal. Everything is momentary either physical or non-physical element. The law of change is universal, hence here the existence of permanent soul is denied.
It is the theory of No Ego Complex, i.e individual ego. It is commonly accepted that there is a soul in humans that is eternal, permanent, unchanging and thus it persists through all changes in mind and body, through birth and death, and ultimately attains salvation where it dwells in its own existence unconditionally.
But Buddha says, whenever we look towards what we call “self”, we see stream of ideas of thoughts (Sanantavada, Theory of Stream). Thoughts, feelings, desires arise at one moment and vanish at the next. No mental idea lasts for more than an instant. The self is nothing but the series of successive mental and bodily processes which are impermanent.
Buddha takes soul in the sense of individual ego complex. However, he never denied pure conciousness, true aatma or pure self i.e Boddhi or Prajnana.
Based on Kshanivada : The soul of this doctrine is a bundle of five skandhas or continuously changing aggregates, and explained by Milind-Panho :
(Doctrine of Panch Skandhas)
a) Rupa (Form) : Material factors of body
b) Vedana (Feeling) : The feelings of pleasure, pain etc.
c) Sanjna (Perceptions) : The concepts, intellect, ideas etc.
d) Samskar (Impressions) : These are the predispositions, instincts, remnants of previous birth etc.
e) Vijnana (Conciousness) : It is a continuous flow of awareness.
First is Material (Rupa) and the last four are psychical (Nama). Hence, psychologically, man is a collection of five groups (Pancha-Skandha). Each part of the group is only a momentary existence. Man is only a conventional name for a collection of different constituents, just as a chariot is a collection of wheels, axles, shafts etc.
There is a common misunderstanding concerning the Doctrine of anatta, saying that through this doctrine Buddha denies the existence of soul. But it is not so, as Buddha denies just the existence of an eternal, unchanging soul, but accepts self/soul as a collection of skandhas, which is not permanent but keeps on changing. He accepts a changing self as an individual ego complex.
There is a debate between Buddhism and Upanishad. Upanishadic aatma is actually Budhissht bodhi and Upanishadic Jiva is Buddhist aatma. Buddha’s concept of soul i.e flow of consciousness can be compared with the western Philosopher’s David Hume’s theory of self.
The Doctrine of Anatmyavada also denies the permanent existence of material objects.
Buddha believes in re-birth, however without considering the transmigration of soul. In the absence of permanent soul, he explains rebirth on the basis of PsP and Theory of Karma, i.e Rebirth is the causation of next birth by the preceeding moment. He uses the example of candle to explain re-birth. According to Buddha, the end state of one life casually is responsible for the beginning of the other, just as a candle flame can light another when it itself is dying out. Both the lives are connected in a continuous stream.
Arguments of Anantmavada :
  • We can’t get knowledge of a permanent soul by perception.
  • Permanent or eternal soul cannot produce non permanent, consequential actions (Karma). Thus this doctrine is against the law of Karma.
  • Bondage cannot be explained by permanent soul as a permanent soul should never fall into bondage if it is pure, and if it is impure, it will never attain liberation.
  • Rebirth cannot be explained as eternal soul can neither take birth nor can die.
  • Moroever, a man is responsible for his actions because his past, present and future are all bound together by casual changes.
  • Regulator Of Body : An eternal, permanent soul cannot regulate the functions of the body, as it is passive. It can only be possible if the body, consciousness etc i,e all the skandhas are linked together to form the soul.
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(4) Kshanikavada (Theory of Flux) (Causal-Efficiency/Artha-Karya-Kartiva Doctrine)

Logical outcome of Psp is Ksanikavada. It is also called a Santanvadaa or Theory of flux. It is applicable to both mind and matter. According to this theory, as everything changes from moment to moment, everything further exists only for a moment (this moment is metaphysical moment), as it comes to exist for a moment, produces an effect and exhausts. Not just material objects, but body, consciousness, happiness, everything is momentary and sorrowful. He experiences a flow of change/flux.
  • Theory of momentariness is applicable to this phenomenal world only (matter and soul). Thus, there is no “being” or “non-being”, everything is always in the state of “becoming” alone. Thus, this doctrine is also complemented by Buddha’s causal efficiency (doctrine)
  • Everything is subject to birth and death, production and destruction and creation and decay.
Buddhist logicians support the theory of momentariness by a logical argument called Artha-karya Karitva or efficiency of production. (Causal Efficiency Doctrine). They maintain that the criterion of existence (satta) is its capacity to produce some effect. An existent thing must produce an effect. Example : Seed is efficient to produce a tree.
Only that is existent (SAT) which has a capacity to produce an effect. Even if it doesn’t become a plant, the seed undergoes change in itself. Eventually, if dormant, the seed disintegrates and is destroyed. Change is reality.
Buddha denies unity in the sense of identity, but recognizes continuity in its place.
Repeatable succession gives rise to the illusion of identity.
Two Propositions of Kshanikavada :
a) Everything is Momentary : Only momentary atoms and ideas exist. This is explained on basis of
  • Santanavada (Theory of Streams) : Consciousness(soul) and matter are a result of continuous flow of ideas and unconsciousness atoms respectively.
  • Sanghatavada (Theory of aggregate)  : Soul is only an aggregate of the five fleeting skandhas. Objects are aggregates of unconscious atoms subject to degradation. Even modern science supports that ultimate realities are quarks that are packets of energy having momentary existence.
b) Everything is Changing : It is the logical outcome of the first proposition – If everything is momentary, then only change is real. Everything is thus in the state of flux, i.e becoming (There is no being, only becoming).
Example : A river is not the same river at any moment, it is continuously changing. The rapidity of succession of water only gives the illusion of permanence, which is unreal  (Similar to Greek Philosopher Heraclitus)
Example of a flame : Every moment, flame is different. The mind is unable to perceive the difference as the change is subtle and minute. Rapidity of succession gives rise to illusion of identity (Similar to Hume, causal theory is not logical but psychological necessity.)
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(3) Pratitya Samutpada

Theory of Dependent Organization/Theory of Causation (“This being, that arises”)
This theory is logically coming from second noble truth. This is the cornerstone or foundation of Buddhism. It is the causal law of both individual lives as well as laws of the Universe. It explains :
a) That all phenomena are interdependent and conditional
b) Shows how birth, old age, death are all dependent upon conditions and thus that the suffering of life can cease if these conditions are removed. (Dvadasa-nidana)
c) Law of Karma : Every result or fruit depends on prior action performed.
Doctrine :    ASMIN SATI IDAM BHAVATI
                 ASMIN ASATI IDAM NA BHAVATI
Nothing is spontaneous and everything that happens in the physical and mental world is dependent on something. The existence of everything is conditional, dependent on some cause. When the condition disappears, the effect disappears.
P.S is the middle path between two extreme view points : Saswatvada or Eternalism and Ucchedavada or Nihilism.
Satkaryavad and Asatkaryavad. (Thus, everything is not destroyed after death, some elements remain)
Interpretations of PSP :
  • Hinayani : Realism. Thus PSP describes temporal sequence, i.e real relation between external objects and internal.
  • Yogacara Vignanavadin : Subjective Idealism like Berkeley. Explains the causal dependence of idea on other ideas. Since external objects depend on ideas which in turn depends on Consciousness, Consciousness is real. External objects are nothing but mere mental constructs. No difference between blue and consciousness of blue.
  • Sunyavadin : Everything is relative and interdependent. Empirical world has all the things with forms and names dependent on Pratitya Samutpada while Pramartha-Satya has an indescribable permanent truth which can be known only through direct intuitive insight into Prajna.
Depending on the cause (complement of cause and conditions), effect is produced/arises if the cause is removed, effect does not arise.
Nothing is spontaneous, everything that happens is dependent on something. The Shunyavadins take this further to conclude that everything is not only dependent but also relative to everything else. Example : Lamp-flame when oil is extinguished.
According to Buddha, life is suffering which is called “jara-marana”. This is because there is birth (jati). Birth is due to the will to be born (Bhava). Bhava is the cause of life after death. The cause of this tendency is our mental clinging (upadana) to the objects of the world. This mental cligning is owing to out thirst (trsna) to enjoy objects. Previous sense experience (vedana) is the cause of our thirst. But the question arises, why do we have sense experience? It is because of sense-object contact (sparsa). This contact arises due to six sense organs (Sadayatana). These six sense organs depend for their existence on psychological organism (nama-rupa). Why do we have this organism? Because of initial consciousness of embryo (vijnanana). This consciousness of the embryo is because of our impressions of Karma (Samskara) from our past experience. The impressions which make our rebirth are owing to ignorance (avidya) about truth. Hence, ignorance is the root cause of all our suffering.
Out of the 12 links, last two are related to the past life, the first two to the future and the rest to the present. So the 12 links cover the past, present and future life which is causally connected.
Criticism :
  • Origin of Avidya is not explained
  • Sometimes, it is said that it is an imitation of Brahmachakra of Upanishad.
  • If everything is dependent on cause for origin, what is the original cause?
Importance : PsP is considered base of all other Buddhist philosophical doctrines :
  • Theory of Karma
  • Theory of Momentariness (Ksanikvada)
  • Theory of no-ego (Nairatmavada)
  • Theory of aggregates (Sanghatavada)
  • Theory of causal efficieny (artha-kriya-karitva)
Thus, in order to end suffering in this cycle, clinging to desires, or pleasure, or thirst, any of these can be broken. Once this cycle is broken, the effort also ceases to be produced, as suffering is dependent on the other factors. Once tendency to take birth is also eliminated, Nirvana may be attained. This requires following the eight fold path.
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(2) Madhyamika Shunyavadin School + Yogacara School of Subjective Idealism + Sautrantika School

Madhyamika Shunyavadin
Shunayavada is the logical culmination of Buddhist Philosophy of Pratitya Samutpada. Nagarjuna is considered the first propounder of Shunyavada.
Literally, Shunya can be translated as “void” or “nothingness”. Based on this, critics have labelled it as either skepticism or nihilism, but Shunyavada is neither skeptic nor nihilist.
According to Shunyavada, Shunya means non-describeable beyond four categories of reason, i.e
  • Sat
  • Asat
  • Both 
  • Neither
It means that reality transcends the faculties of reason. This notion is similar to Shanakara. Nagarjuna says that Buddha’s teachings relates to two aspect of Truth : The empirical truth and the absolute. The first one is called Samvriti-Satya, while the second is Paramartha-Satya. One pertaining to the phenomenol world, the world as grasped through names and forms, and the other to reality as it is in itself, beyond all names and forms.
Empirically it means relativity of phenomenon. Shunyavada can be looked at from two point of views :
a) In view of Phenomenon or Empirical Reality : This world is SvabhavaShunya, i.e devoid of any independent or unconditional or permanent or absolute existence. This way, Pratitya Samutpada results in relative and dependent existence of everything. The world of names and forms is governed by Doctrine of Dependent Organization. In the realm of phenomena, there can be no absolute truth. Nagarjuna says this is for the ordinary person. For this, Nagarjuna calls phenomenal truths as “conventional“, “relative“, “mundane” and “lower truths“. (Samvriti-Satya)
Are of two types :
  • Loka Samvriti : Phenomena which is born out of some cause and through which all activities of the worldly beings are conducted.
  • Mithya Samvriti : This is the phenomenon which is born due to some cause but is not admitted to be true by all. It helps all in their behavior.
The empirical truth is the only means by which the transcendental truth can be attained. Nagarjuna maintains that the transcendental truth cannot be realized without the help of empirical truth and without realizing the transcendental truth, Nirvana cannot be attained.
b) In view of the Absolute : It is Prapancha-shunya or simply, indescribeable. It is absolute, unconditional, higher truth, beyond percepts and concepts.  It Pramartha-Satya. Devoid of any verbalization or thought construction. This is the transcendental truth, which cannot be grasped by any form of intelligent reason or empiricism. It is possible only by direct intuitive insight into reality itself (called Prajna). And only by this Prajna, can Nirvana be attained.
Buddha maintained silence with respect to such non-empirical questions as whether the world is eternal or non-eternal, finite or infinite, whether the soul is same as or different from the body, whether or not one who attains Nirvana exists after death, and what Nirvana itself is. Buddha is silent because such questions transcends reason and sense experience and that consequently any attempt to answer them through names and forms is futile.
Why is SHUNYAVADA school called MADHYAMIKA ?
Buddhism itself is ascribed to be a middle path as it follows a path that is between extreme affirmation, extreme negation(Nihilism) and self mortification, self indulgence(Aghori)
Madhyamika is the logical culmination of Buddhist Philosophy. In this context, Madhyamika can be seen as true followers of middle path.

Yogacara Vignanavad
Its followers admit that there is only one kind of reality which is of nature of consciousness and objects which appear to be material or external to consciousness, but are in reality only mental constructs, ideas. Hence they are called subjective idealists. The same is followed by Berkeley.
  • Consciousness is real and consciousness/mind is the only reality.
  • There is no duality between Mind and matter. Externality is a fiction.
  • This may be said to be subjective idealism, as there is no independent reality but consciousness (Similar to Berkeley)
  • Do not agree with Shunyavadins that mind is also Shunya. For them, all thinking and reason would be false. The reality of mind should at least be admitted in order to make correct thinking possible.
As Charvaka maintains : “Matter is All”, Vignanavadin maintains, “Consciousness is all”.
Just as in a dream, a man perceives things around him, which are actually not real. Similarily, objects appear only because they are ideas in the mind. There is no difference between blue color and consciousness of blue color, object cannot exist without consciousness of it (Esse ist Percipi)
Three levels of Reality :
Yogacara and Buddhism refers to three levels of Reality :
a) Parikalpit or Illusory : When imagines appear as real. Example : Snake is a rope, or dream experience.
b) Paritantra or Worldy : The empirical phenomenon are realized as relative and dependent.
c) Parinispanna or Transcendental : When consciousness is recognized as the only reality.
(Similar to Sankara’s three layers of Reality)
Negation of External Object :
a) Just as in cases of dreams and hallucinations, a man fancies to perceive things outside, though they don’t exist there, similarily the objects which appear to be out there, are actually just ideas of our mind.
b) The existence of external objects cannot be proved, because it cannot be shows that the object is different from the consciousness of the object.

Sautrantika School (Belief in Inference)
  • Both external and internal are real.
  • External objects’ knowledge is not gained directly by perception, but inferred from our perception. External objects are momentary in nature. They produce ideas in our mind, on the basis of these ideas, we infer the existence of external objects.
  • This is similar to Representative Realism of Locke.
Why do we say that external objects are real?
It is because of external objects that we are able to distinguish between illusory and non-illusory experience.
Moro ever, if external objects are non-existent, then internal cognition must appear as external objects. But this is not true, the idea of food alone does not satisfy hunger, external food is required.
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(1) Four Noble Truths + This Being that arises + Schools of Buddhism

Buddha encouraged self effort, self experience and free analytical attitude. Buddha diagnosed man as a suffering being whose psycho-physical being itself was the root cause of his suffering. For Buddha, attainment of awakening is not a result of logical rationality alone. Only by self effort can wisdom be awakened that can cleanse the self of psychological defilement.
Epistemologically, he accepted two Pramans : Perception and Inference.
Through Buddha’s four noble truths, we encounter his causal theory in the second noble truth called Pratitya Samutpada or Theory of Dependent Organization. (Third noble truth = Niravana)

Buddha’s four noble truths/facts of life (ARYA SATYA):
Buddha’s four noble truths serve as the introduction to Buddhist Philosophy.
a) There is Suffering : Suffering is a reality of this world. Life is full of pain and misery. Even pleasure eventually only brings pain through bondage. First noble truth i.e reality of suffering are signs to cultivating understanding.
b) There is a cause of suffering : Everything has a cause. Nothing arises out of “nothing”. Suffering is an effect and since everything in the world is conditional, temporary and limited, suffering also is conditional. This calls for the practice of renunciation.
c) There is an end to suffering  :  “Asmin Sati, Idam Bhavati”
                                                                     “Asmin Asati, Idam Na Bhavati”
As long as cause exists, effect is produced. When cause is removed, effect is also removed. Thus, when the cause of suffering is destroyed, suffering must also perish. This asks us to directly realize the destruction of suffering.
d) There is a way to end the suffering (ASTANGIKA MARG): Buddha taught an ethical and spiritual path to the end of suffering, called the eight-fold path. It is the middle path between self-indulgence and self mortification and it avoids dogmatic views. This imposes on us a practice of developing the eight fold path. This Astangika Marga leads to three types of training :
  • Training in wisdom
  • Ethical training
  • Training in concentration (Through four stages)
Metaphysical importance of Noble truths : By the second and third truth, it can be deduced that everything in this world has a cause, everything is conditional, dependent (Pratitya Samutpada or Theory of Dependent Organization). If we remove cause, effect is also removed. Everything is subject to birth and death, subject to production and destruction and therefore impermanent. Everything is relative. The causal formula being
“This being that arises” 
According to Buddha, there is neither absolute reality, not absolute unreal. It hangs between reality and nothingness i.e middle path.
He identifies Pratitya Samutpada with Boddhi i.e enlightenment and Dharma i.e Law.
Suffering is SANSAR and cessation of suffering is NIRAVANA.
Pratitya Samutpada when seen from relative point of view is SANSAR but when seen from absolute point of view, it is NIRVANA.
Buddha found the cause of Misery/Suffering in Pratitya Samupada elaborated in the form of 12 dependent links.
The root cause of this causal wheel is ignorance. This can be handled only by right knowledge. This is a viscous circle of causation. It doesn’t end with death. Death is only the beginning of new life. This causal wheel is known as Janam-maran-chakra/Dharma-chakra/Bhav-Chakra/Pratitya Samudpada Chakra.
Niravana doesn’t mean extinction of existence, but instead means extinction of suffering. Pratitya Samutpada is the fundamental teaching of Buddha.
For Buddha, attainment of awakening is not a result of logical rationality alone. Only by self effort can wisdom be awakened that can cleanse the self of psychological defilement.

Schools of Buddhism
Buddha devoted himself solely to the task of finding the path of cessation of suffering and sorrows in the world. Thus he refused to answer metaphysical questions, as intellectual speculation alone cannot lead man to the end of suffering and nirvana, which is the ultimate aim of life.
Thus, on the metaphysical questions Buddha remained silent on are called Avyaktani or the unexplained questions. (Gave the example of arrow piercing the body for not answering these questions.)
Buddha was of the view that discussions of these questions was futile as this world only give rise to partial, conflicting and limited viewpoints.
And roughly so, in the process of answering these questions, Buddhism divided into two main schools :
a) Mahayana : Metaphysically, they donot accept the existence of non-mental objects. External phenomenon are not real. This is called Idealism.
  • Shunyavadin/Madhyamik School : Donot even accept mental objects as real. Everything is relative and interdependent. (Shunya)
  • Vijananavadin : Accept only mental objects as real (Just like Berkeley/Subjective Idealism).
b) Hinayana : Accept the reality of mental as well as non-mental objects. External phenomenon are real. (Realism)
  • Vaibhasikha : By perception
  • Sautrantika :  By inference
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(5) Bondage and Liberation

Bondage
The most significant aspect of Jaina Philosophy is its ethics. Final aim of Jaina is to liberate the soul and gain Kevalajnana and regains its true nature of Anantachatustaya . The Soul/Astikaya Jiva is Badha i.e bondage, due to association with Karma Matter (Karma Pudgal).
Soul/Jiva inherently/originally is anantachatustaya, i.e is a possession of four infinite qualities of infinite faith, power, knowledge and bliss (K, F, B, P).
However, passions (Kasaya, Sticky substance) and cravings, which spring from beginning less ignorance, cause the soul to become associated with matter (Karmic Pudgala), and its original qualities are contaminated and souls become finite. (Which previously was infinite). Jiva loses its anantachatusthaya.
The Kasaya/sticky substance which can cause bondage are  : Anger, greed, pride and delusion.
These are called Kasaya or Sticky substance, because they cause matter to stick to the soul. Now the soul, because of Kasaya, attract the flow of Karma Pudgala towards itself. The nature and number of Karma Pudgala attracted by soul depends on its own Karma.
The process of flow (influx) is called Ashrava.
  • Are of 42 kinds.
  • Two types : Bhavashrava and Dravyashrava
  • Bhavashrava : Changes in the bhavs of the soul before the entering of the Karma pudgala. Like body massaged with oil
  • Dravyashrava : Changes after the entrance of Karma Pudgala, i.e sticking of karma pudgala with Jiva.
The process of binding of soul is called Bandha.
The matter intermixes with the Jiva just as water mixes with milk. Thus, our body, we find consciouness and matter in every part. The soul remains co-extensive with the body.
(Ideal bondage occurs as soon as the soul gives rise to ignore dispositions). Relation between Karma and Soul is itself beginning less.

Liberation
Since Karma is what binds the soul, liberation requires disassociation of the soul from the Karma Pudgala. This is a two step process  :
a) SAMVARA : Stopping of influx of new matter into the soul
b) NIRJARA :  Wearing out of the already present Karma Pudgala in the soul.
When the process is complete, the soul attains Kevalajana and the state is called Moksha. The liberated soul transcends Samsara and resides in Siddha-Shila, where it dwells in its eternal and infinite attributes.
Omniscience + Anantachatushtaya revealed.
The indispensable path to liberation requires three things : Right Faith, Right knowledge, Right Conduct. Together, they are called Triratna or three jewels.
  • Samyak Darshana
  • Samyak Jnana
  • Samyak Charitra : Involves the Panchamahavrata
PANCH-MAHAVRATA :
A) AHIMSA
B) SATYAM : Always say the truth
C) ASTEYAM : Don’t steal
D) BRAHMACHARYA : Abstinence from self indulgance.
E) APARGRIHA : Abstinence from all attachment.
Since beggingless ignorance is the root cause of bondage, it can be removed only by knowledge. But right knowledge can be attained only faith in teaching first. Thus, right faith is necessary. It is right conduct that perfects the knowledge that is gained. Hence, right knowledge is dawned when all the passions are destroyed by Right Conduct.
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(4) Saptabhanginaya

It means dialectic of the seven steps or the Theory of Seven-Fold-Judgement.
To sum up, Jaina recognizes seven kinds of conditional judgement, each of which, being relative, is preceded by the word Syad. This is called Syadvada or Saptabhanginaya. (Ordinary logic recognizes two forms of judgement – Affirmative and negative)
Seven forms of Judgements are as follows :
  • Syat ASTI : A thing is real relatively
  • Syat NASTI : A thing is unreal relatively
  • Syat ASTI NASTI : Relatively, a thing is both real and unreal (This cannot be a criticism as we are taking different points of view here)
  • Syat AVAKTAVYAM : Relatively, a thing is indescriable.
  • Syat ASTI AVAKTAVYAM : Relatively, a thing is real and indescribable.
  • Syat NASTI AVAKTAVYAM : Relatively, a thing is unreal and indescribable.
  • Syat ASTI NASTI AVAKTAVYAM : Relatively, a things is real, unreal and indescribable.
Example of Saptabhanginaya takes time and space into consideration. Example : Syad table asti cha nasti cha.
This means, this table is as this time and this location while the fact that it isn’t at another location is also true. This conditional judgement, makes Jaina Philosophy highly tolerant. Almost all philosophical/religious different are due to mistaking partial truth as complete.
Criticisms :
  • In SAPTBHANGINYAYA, the last three are just recombination of what comes in the first four points. Last three points are superfluous and redundant.
  • THEY ARE SELF CONTRADICTORY (same thing has been defined as being real and unreal i.e SYAT ASATI NASATI) : Jainas defend themselves as they consider it to be different points of views. Hence this criticism is wrong and countered.