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(5) Bondage and Liberation

Bondage
The most significant aspect of Jaina Philosophy is its ethics. Final aim of Jaina is to liberate the soul and gain Kevalajnana and regains its true nature of Anantachatustaya . The Soul/Astikaya Jiva is Badha i.e bondage, due to association with Karma Matter (Karma Pudgal).
Soul/Jiva inherently/originally is anantachatustaya, i.e is a possession of four infinite qualities of infinite faith, power, knowledge and bliss (K, F, B, P).
However, passions (Kasaya, Sticky substance) and cravings, which spring from beginning less ignorance, cause the soul to become associated with matter (Karmic Pudgala), and its original qualities are contaminated and souls become finite. (Which previously was infinite). Jiva loses its anantachatusthaya.
The Kasaya/sticky substance which can cause bondage are  : Anger, greed, pride and delusion.
These are called Kasaya or Sticky substance, because they cause matter to stick to the soul. Now the soul, because of Kasaya, attract the flow of Karma Pudgala towards itself. The nature and number of Karma Pudgala attracted by soul depends on its own Karma.
The process of flow (influx) is called Ashrava.
  • Are of 42 kinds.
  • Two types : Bhavashrava and Dravyashrava
  • Bhavashrava : Changes in the bhavs of the soul before the entering of the Karma pudgala. Like body massaged with oil
  • Dravyashrava : Changes after the entrance of Karma Pudgala, i.e sticking of karma pudgala with Jiva.
The process of binding of soul is called Bandha.
The matter intermixes with the Jiva just as water mixes with milk. Thus, our body, we find consciouness and matter in every part. The soul remains co-extensive with the body.
(Ideal bondage occurs as soon as the soul gives rise to ignore dispositions). Relation between Karma and Soul is itself beginning less.

Liberation
Since Karma is what binds the soul, liberation requires disassociation of the soul from the Karma Pudgala. This is a two step process  :
a) SAMVARA : Stopping of influx of new matter into the soul
b) NIRJARA :  Wearing out of the already present Karma Pudgala in the soul.
When the process is complete, the soul attains Kevalajana and the state is called Moksha. The liberated soul transcends Samsara and resides in Siddha-Shila, where it dwells in its eternal and infinite attributes.
Omniscience + Anantachatushtaya revealed.
The indispensable path to liberation requires three things : Right Faith, Right knowledge, Right Conduct. Together, they are called Triratna or three jewels.
  • Samyak Darshana
  • Samyak Jnana
  • Samyak Charitra : Involves the Panchamahavrata
PANCH-MAHAVRATA :
A) AHIMSA
B) SATYAM : Always say the truth
C) ASTEYAM : Don’t steal
D) BRAHMACHARYA : Abstinence from self indulgance.
E) APARGRIHA : Abstinence from all attachment.
Since beggingless ignorance is the root cause of bondage, it can be removed only by knowledge. But right knowledge can be attained only faith in teaching first. Thus, right faith is necessary. It is right conduct that perfects the knowledge that is gained. Hence, right knowledge is dawned when all the passions are destroyed by Right Conduct.