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(2) Madhyamika Shunyavadin School + Yogacara School of Subjective Idealism + Sautrantika School

Madhyamika Shunyavadin
Shunayavada is the logical culmination of Buddhist Philosophy of Pratitya Samutpada. Nagarjuna is considered the first propounder of Shunyavada.
Literally, Shunya can be translated as “void” or “nothingness”. Based on this, critics have labelled it as either skepticism or nihilism, but Shunyavada is neither skeptic nor nihilist.
According to Shunyavada, Shunya means non-describeable beyond four categories of reason, i.e
  • Sat
  • Asat
  • Both 
  • Neither
It means that reality transcends the faculties of reason. This notion is similar to Shanakara. Nagarjuna says that Buddha’s teachings relates to two aspect of Truth : The empirical truth and the absolute. The first one is called Samvriti-Satya, while the second is Paramartha-Satya. One pertaining to the phenomenol world, the world as grasped through names and forms, and the other to reality as it is in itself, beyond all names and forms.
Empirically it means relativity of phenomenon. Shunyavada can be looked at from two point of views :
a) In view of Phenomenon or Empirical Reality : This world is SvabhavaShunya, i.e devoid of any independent or unconditional or permanent or absolute existence. This way, Pratitya Samutpada results in relative and dependent existence of everything. The world of names and forms is governed by Doctrine of Dependent Organization. In the realm of phenomena, there can be no absolute truth. Nagarjuna says this is for the ordinary person. For this, Nagarjuna calls phenomenal truths as “conventional“, “relative“, “mundane” and “lower truths“. (Samvriti-Satya)
Are of two types :
  • Loka Samvriti : Phenomena which is born out of some cause and through which all activities of the worldly beings are conducted.
  • Mithya Samvriti : This is the phenomenon which is born due to some cause but is not admitted to be true by all. It helps all in their behavior.
The empirical truth is the only means by which the transcendental truth can be attained. Nagarjuna maintains that the transcendental truth cannot be realized without the help of empirical truth and without realizing the transcendental truth, Nirvana cannot be attained.
b) In view of the Absolute : It is Prapancha-shunya or simply, indescribeable. It is absolute, unconditional, higher truth, beyond percepts and concepts.  It Pramartha-Satya. Devoid of any verbalization or thought construction. This is the transcendental truth, which cannot be grasped by any form of intelligent reason or empiricism. It is possible only by direct intuitive insight into reality itself (called Prajna). And only by this Prajna, can Nirvana be attained.
Buddha maintained silence with respect to such non-empirical questions as whether the world is eternal or non-eternal, finite or infinite, whether the soul is same as or different from the body, whether or not one who attains Nirvana exists after death, and what Nirvana itself is. Buddha is silent because such questions transcends reason and sense experience and that consequently any attempt to answer them through names and forms is futile.
Why is SHUNYAVADA school called MADHYAMIKA ?
Buddhism itself is ascribed to be a middle path as it follows a path that is between extreme affirmation, extreme negation(Nihilism) and self mortification, self indulgence(Aghori)
Madhyamika is the logical culmination of Buddhist Philosophy. In this context, Madhyamika can be seen as true followers of middle path.

Yogacara Vignanavad
Its followers admit that there is only one kind of reality which is of nature of consciousness and objects which appear to be material or external to consciousness, but are in reality only mental constructs, ideas. Hence they are called subjective idealists. The same is followed by Berkeley.
  • Consciousness is real and consciousness/mind is the only reality.
  • There is no duality between Mind and matter. Externality is a fiction.
  • This may be said to be subjective idealism, as there is no independent reality but consciousness (Similar to Berkeley)
  • Do not agree with Shunyavadins that mind is also Shunya. For them, all thinking and reason would be false. The reality of mind should at least be admitted in order to make correct thinking possible.
As Charvaka maintains : “Matter is All”, Vignanavadin maintains, “Consciousness is all”.
Just as in a dream, a man perceives things around him, which are actually not real. Similarily, objects appear only because they are ideas in the mind. There is no difference between blue color and consciousness of blue color, object cannot exist without consciousness of it (Esse ist Percipi)
Three levels of Reality :
Yogacara and Buddhism refers to three levels of Reality :
a) Parikalpit or Illusory : When imagines appear as real. Example : Snake is a rope, or dream experience.
b) Paritantra or Worldy : The empirical phenomenon are realized as relative and dependent.
c) Parinispanna or Transcendental : When consciousness is recognized as the only reality.
(Similar to Sankara’s three layers of Reality)
Negation of External Object :
a) Just as in cases of dreams and hallucinations, a man fancies to perceive things outside, though they don’t exist there, similarily the objects which appear to be out there, are actually just ideas of our mind.
b) The existence of external objects cannot be proved, because it cannot be shows that the object is different from the consciousness of the object.

Sautrantika School (Belief in Inference)
  • Both external and internal are real.
  • External objects’ knowledge is not gained directly by perception, but inferred from our perception. External objects are momentary in nature. They produce ideas in our mind, on the basis of these ideas, we infer the existence of external objects.
  • This is similar to Representative Realism of Locke.
Why do we say that external objects are real?
It is because of external objects that we are able to distinguish between illusory and non-illusory experience.
Moro ever, if external objects are non-existent, then internal cognition must appear as external objects. But this is not true, the idea of food alone does not satisfy hunger, external food is required.

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